Gay community in spanish

In fact, the current processes of normalisation make explicit reference to the past situation of exceptionality, which serve to justify the need for normalisation understood as normality : stability, habit, natural situation.


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Thus, the urge to recover the historical memory comes together with a discourse with countervailing positions: the forgotten enforced and unjust, thus an abnormal situation and the memory which requires a process of normalisation to achieve normality. However, it would be wrong to consider the dictatorship period as just a mere parenthesis of abnormality: a quick glance at the cultural policies during the dictatorship reveal a special preoccupation to purge, homogenise and indoctrinate, to declare that the former Second Republic regime had come to destabilize the natural order of things and as a result of that, the new Francoist national state had to take charge of their normalisation.

Obviously, the terminology employed by the dictatorship and democracy agents is different, along with their fundamental ideologies basis and their political praxis. But from the perspective of the power relations it is evident that in both cases social and cultural control mechanisms have been orchestrated in order to create or secure certain habits instead of others Bourdieu: subjectivization of structures. Any process of normalisation is necessarily carried out from a position of power- either the power exercised by the protagonists themselves concerning the situation that is to be normalised Spanish people, people suffering physical disabilities, the LGBT community, ethnic minorities … , or the power exercised against other people ethnic cleansing, the normalisation of Czechoslovakia past When we refer to normalisation we should not forget the perlocutionary and coercive aspect inherent in every social interaction when produced from a status of power.

Normalising primarily means to restore normality to something that had lost it or to turn into normal something that still is not; but in a second definition it means to subject to a rule to regulate, to dictate. The first definition refers to the ideas of habituation and naturalisation; the second one, to the ideas of ordering and legislation.

Given that for thousands of years any type of sexuality beyond heterosexist patriarchy was considered as inherently abnormal, deviant and unnatural, the processes of the normalisation of homosexuality currently follow winding and unpredictable paths. The normalisation of homosexuality in Spain, one of the most successful in the world from a legal point of view, has travelled those four paths of habituation, naturalisation, ordering and legislation. We have succeeded in making society used to the presence of LGBT people and their lifestyles, in viewing homosexuality as a natural act pertaining to our species and society, in providing some sense of categorial and taxonomic order to what was previously a confusing amalgam of terms and concepts [2] and also in replacing a legislation that criminalised with an anti-discriminatory one.

With all this positive normalisation, we have also managed to build a cultural, social and legal edifice perfectly integrated into the structures of the state with the blessing and consent from social agents, with the protection and guarantee given by the institutions and with a robust protection against homophobic attacks which the new orthodoxy pushes to the margins of the system.

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LGBT people have moved from the darkness, stigmatization, silencing, the unmentionable and the taboo to be an integral part of the system. Literature shows us the humane, private and personal side of these big cultural operations. LGBT people live the normalisation of these great categories in a very different way.

From the problems and worries of everyday life it is often difficult to grasp the connection between the real lived experience and the tectonic movements of the great plates of abstract concepts. Literature captures this personal and private dimension far better than theory. In her recent book about shame the queer theorist Sally Munt introduces her own position confessing the shame she felt as a young person, the cause being what she perceived as inadequacy, her lesbian affectation, her country origins and her different accent, etc.

The wish to be normal is one of the basic impulses of the human condition. To be normal in terms of sexual, linguistic, racial and physical characteristics means not feeling inferior simply because one is gay, because one does not speak the dominant language, because one does not belong to the dominant race, or because one has a physical disability.

To be normal is usually a mere aspiration for those belonging to these minorities: to become normal.

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But it is precisely here, at this personal level, where the politics of normalisation finds its principal contradiction: who is authorised to define normality, and to what extent is it legitimate to impose their definition on others either by means of force or persuasion? All the policies aimed at normalising physical disabilities have only been made possible once other conditions traditionally labelled as abnormal have claimed their right to normality.

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Another inherent contradiction in the logic of normalisation is the creation of new orthodoxies and heterodoxies inside the normalised groups. Or in other words, the creation of new power structures that dictate what is acceptable and what is not. And of course it also exists in the LGBT movement where power structures have been generated, with the inevitable heterodoxies, dissents and exclusions.

According to Ruth Goldman:. Those of us who fall outside of this normativity are thus rendered queer queers and must position ourselves and our work in opposition to it Goldman, What can the stabilizing agendas of normalisation have in common with the radically destabilizing, anti-categorial, performative but never essentialist philosophy of QT?

Since Spanish law now makes same-sex marriage possible it might be appropriate to emphasize once again the distance separating normal from queer. He adds that the reason is that QT and all queer ethics, as a radically alter perspective existing outside the system, serve the purpose of criticising not only heterosexuality and heterosexism, but all social and economic structures.

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Meanwhile, in his latest book, Lee Edelman emphasizes the negativist and anti-social aspects of QT and defends the present-minded drive of homosexuality as an antidote to the sanctimonious obsession of patriarchy, against its anxiety about the survival of the species, etc. Queer, outside the patriarchal paradigm, has other values: the now, the self Edelman, As if two different worlds, the patriarchal and the queer universe look at each other from afar and fail to understand one another.

The Russian formalist Viktor Shklovsky developed the concept of ostranenie or estrangement, defamiliarization or deautomatization in art as follows: The purpose of art is to impart the sensation of things as they are perceived and not as they are known. Art is a way of experiencing the artfulness of an object; the object is not important.

Read with queer eyes, national literatures that underpinned the creation of national identities in the past offer the queer reader unexpected surprises. LGBT themed literature and cinema takes part in the debate between normalisation and anti-normalisation in a much more central and decisive way than it might seem. It is not only that literature has often functioned as a laboratory or testing ground for all kinds of proposals in relation to the LGBT world some of which have proved premonitory, indeed , nor that the culture industry has allowed the creation of a market which ultimately has its own identity and group consciousness.

Nor that the same literary dynamics have generated a LGBT establishment with their icons and their demons. All this, being true, proves to be superficial compared to the ability of a story or poem to propose possible worlds where sexuality is seen as the cessation or estrangement mentioned by Shklovski —ultimately to create alternative paradigms. In the ancient literary tradition concerning LGBT themes there are anti-normalising paradigms such as the coded texts, hidden keys and secret references of troubadour and minstrel poetry of the late Middle Ages, or the invention of words and images known only to initiated that proliferated during the Symbolism and Surrealism, or the tradition of self-imposed silence, the silencing of the homosexual voice that yet leaves its traces in the sublimated eroticism of epic or Hollywood melodrama.

What we might call normalised heterosexuality which is nothing but patriarchy compels other sexualities to flourish as clandestine literature that only with the passing of time and after many generations manages to create its own tradition. These possibilities granted by literary experience have helped some readers to feel a little less strange. We could even say that literary normalisation, although somewhat vicarious, set precedents for other type of normalisations of the homosexual experience that were to appear later on. There may well be, nevertheless, good reasons for this lack of historical emphasis.

The aura around famous homosexual figures, such as García Lorca, may have, paradoxically, obscured the very nature of homosexual subcultures in the s and s as well as their historical investigation. The linguistic renewal undergone by the entire field of sexuality, and which mainly consisted in the adoption of a lexicon and a set of images and metaphors from the English language, is not perceived today as a blatant example of cultural imperialism received with joy by the colonized subject, but rather as a symptom of novelty and of belonging to the species of international queer.

Sometimes, though not too often, literary studies recall the distant precedents of the twenties. But the fact is that gay literature has a very ancient tradition —a literary heritage that uncompromisingly heteronormative regimes have tried to erase in multiple ways. The feeling of radical novelty of our current LGBT literature is actually a consequence of a shift in a normalised paradigm fabricated during the transition but only implemented from the mid-eighties.

Homografesis Edelman: gay writing is in itself an openly normalising mechanism in the sense of habituation and naturalisation. Creating a social habitus requires, first, repetition, insistence. Although from today's perspective those publications seem, to say the least, misguided, at the time they proved to be extremely shocking because they constituted a full-blown transgression: the dictum of silence established by Christian morality that conceptualised as sodomy sex between people of the same sex peccatum illud horribile inter christianos non nominandum , a prohibition later naturalized through custom and civil laws.

The mere act of publishing novels in which a central theme was the universe of sodomy, sexual deviance, uranism, homosexuality, intersexuality, Doric and Sapphic passions, was a real scandal —and this was despite the fact that such issues were often presented with grotesquely negative tinges and always in connection with the underworld, delinquency, depravity, crime and perversion.

Historically, the narrative of homosexual theme or intention is based on a careful crafting of characters as a prerequisite for any ideological transmission.

Lesbians in Francoist Spain

Hence the plurality of ways of living homosexuality is presented in the literature as a plurality of more or less defined archetypes endowed with easily identifiable features. However, the Spanish literature of the last thirty years has failed to accurately reflect the reality of Spanish gay life. Perhaps the aspect where it is easier to find a reflection is not, as might be expected, in the recreation of colourful characters, but in the progressive, albeit slow, assimilation of its own discourse. Indeed, patriarchal literature had never considered the possibility that the homosexual could speak, he was denied the use of the word even to tell his own story.

LGBT on line resources. LGBT media in the Spanish speaking countries. Novedades del CVC Foros. Reglas para la formación del diminutivo Lengua. Uso del guion largo. Gays around the world are fighting for the legalization of same-sex marriage. Micaela told me that many lesbians find her very attractive. Many gay women were once married to men. Raíces de las palabras. Navega tu cursor sobre uno de los cuadros para aprender nuevas palabras con la misma raíz. Frases con "gay".

Quéjate de este anuncio. View in English. Are you gay? I am gay.